Reference List

These are the sources for the information found in the Question and Answer section. By exploring these sources, you can find the scientific studies and articles that further explain the information and services we provide.

1. Grossman,|Daniel, Charlotte Ellertson, David A. Grimes and Dilys Walker. (2004) Routine Follow-up Visits After First-Trimester Induced Abortion. .Obstetrics and Gynecology (103)4:738-745

2. Ellertson, Charlotte, Batya Elul, Shuha Ambardekar, Lindy Wood, Julie Carroll and Kurus Coyaji. (2000) Accuracy of assessment of pregnancy duration by women seeking early abortions. Lancet 355: 877-881.

3. Taylor, Diana, Ann C. Hwang and Felicia H. Stewart. (2004) Care for Women Choosing Medication Abortion. The Nurse Practitioner 29(10):65-70.

4. International Consortium for Medical Abortion. (2004) Medical Abortion: Expanding Access to Safe Abortion and Saving Women's Lives. Statement from: Medical Abortion: An International Forum on Policies, Programmes and Services, 17-20 October 2004, Johannesburg, South Africa. Medical Abortion Consortium (Retrieved July 26, 2005)

5. Elul, Batya, Selma Hajri, Nguyen thi Nhu Ngoc, Charlotte Ellertson, Claude Ben Slama, Elizabeth Pearlman and Beverly Winikoff. (2001) Can women in less-developed countries use a simplified medical abortion regimen? Lancet 357:1402-05.

6. The Population Council. (1998) Medical Methods of Early Abortion in Developing Countries: Consensus Statement. Contraception 58:257-59.

7. Harper, Cynthia, Charlotte Ellertson and Beverly Winikoff. (2002) Could American women use mifepristone-misoprostol pills safely with less medical supervision? Contraception 65:133-142.

8. Ashok, P.W., A. Templeton, P.T. Wagaarachchi and G.M.M. Flett. (2004) Midtrimester medical termination of pregnancy: a review of 1002 consecutive cases. Contraception 69:51-8.

9. Grimes, David A. (2005) Risks of Mifepristone Abortion in Context. Contraception 71.

10. E.C.H. Sorensen et al. (2005) Failed Medical Termination of Twin Pregnancy with Mifepristone: A Case Report. Contraception 71:231-233.

11. Wiebe, Ellen, Edith Guilbert, Francis Jacot, Caitlin Shannon and Beverly Winikoff. (2004) A Fatal Case of Clostridium sordellii Septic Shock Syndrome Associated With Medical Abortion. Obstetrics and Gynecology 104(5):1142-44.

12. Monday, July 18, 2005 7:38:39 PM ET, Abortion pill maker alerts doctors to five deaths. Reuters, Washington. Retrieved July 19, 2005.

13. Basu, Ranjan, Tina Gundlach, and Margaret Tasker. (2003) Mifepristone and misoprostol for medical termination of pregnancy: the effectiveness of a flexible regimen. Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care 29(3):139-41.

14. Stubblefield, Phillip G., Sacheen Carr-Ellis, and Lynn Borgatta. (2004) Methods for Induced Abortion. Obstetrics and Gynecology 104(1): 174-185.

15. Hausknecht, R. (2003) Mifepristone and misoprostol for early medical abortion: 18 months experience in the United States. Contraception 61:463-65.

16. Allen, Rebecca H., Carolyn Westhoff, Lara De Nonno, Stephen L. Fielding, and Eric A. Schaff. (2001) Curettage After Mifepristone-Induced Abortion: Frequency, Timing, and Indications. Obstetrics and Gynecology 98(1): 101-6.

17. Hamoda, Haitham, Premila W. Ashok, Gillian M. M. Flett and Allan Templeton. (2003) Medical abortion at 64 to 91 days of gestation: A review of 483 consecutive cases. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 188(5): 1315-19.

18. Mitka, Mike. (2000) Some Men Who Take Viagra Die ? Why? Journal of the American Medical Association (283)5: 590-593.

19. Monday, July 19, 2005, 2 More Women Die After Abortion Pills, Gardiner Harris. New York Times Retrieved July 20, 2005.

20. Hamoda, Haitham, Premila W. Ashok, Gillian M.M. Flett, and Allan Templeton. (2005) Medical abortion at 9-13 weeks gestation: a review of 1076 consecutive cases. Contraception 71: 327-332.

21. Ashok, Premila W., Avril Kidd, Gillian M.M. Flett, Ann Fitzmaurice, Wendy Graham and Allan Templeton. (2002) A randomized comparison of medical abortion and surgical vacuum aspiration at 10-13 weeks gestation. Human Reproduction (17)1: 92-98.

22. Ashok, Premila W., Allan Templeton, Prabhath T. Wagaarachchi, and Gillian M.M. Flett. (2002) Factors affecting the outcome of early medical abortion: a review of 4132 consecutive cases. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 109: 1281-1289.

23. Chen, Aimin, Wei Yuan, Olav Meirik, Xianmi Wang, Shi-Zong Wu, Lifeng Zhou, Lin Lou, Ersheng Gao and Yimin Cheng. (2004) Mifepristone-induced Early Abortion and Outcome of Subsequent Wanted Pregnancy. American Journal of Epidemiology (160)2: 110-117.

24. Coyaji, Kurus, Batya Elul, Usha Krishna, Suhas Otiv, Shubha Ambardekar, Arti Bopardikar, Veena Raote, Charlotte Ellertson and Beverly Winikoff. (2001) Mifepristone abortion outside the urban research hospital setting in India. Lancet 357: 120-21.

25. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia, Ectopic pregnancy

26. Kruse, Beth, Suzanne Poppema, Mitchell D. Creinin and Maureen Paul. (2000) Management of side effects and complications in medical abortion. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 183(2):S65-S75.

27. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (1999) The Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy. Medem Network: Medical Library.

28. Schaff, E.A., S.L. Fielding, S.H. Eisinger et al. (2
000) Low-dose mifepristone followed by vaginal misoprostol at 48 hours for abortion up to 63 days. Contraception 61:41-46.

29. Rossi, Brooke, Mitchell D. Creinin and Leslie A. Meyn. (2004) Ability of the clinician and patient to predict the outcome of mifepristone and misoprostol medical abortion. Contraception 70:313-17.

30. Grimes, David A. and Mitchell D. Creinin. (2004) Induced Abortion: An Overview for Internists. Annals of Internal Medicine 140(8):620-27.

31. Rayas, Luca, Diane Catotti and Ana Corts. (2004) Achieving ICPD commitments for abortion care in Latin America: The unfinished agenda. Ipas: Chapel Hill, NC.

32. Allan Guttmacher Institute. (1999) Sharing Responsibility: Women, Society and Abortion Worldwide. Alllan Guttmacher Institute

33. Shannon, C., L. Perry Brothers, Neena M. Philip, and Beverly Winikoff. (2004) Infection after medical ab
ortion: a review of the literature. Contraception 70:183-190.

34. Shannon, C., L. P. Brothers, N. Philip and B. Winikoff. (2004) Ectopic Pregnancy and Medical Abortion. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 104(1):161-167.

35. Saraiya M, Green CA, Berg CJ, Hopkins FW, Koonin LM, Atrash HK. (1999) Spontaneous abortion-related deaths among women in the United States ? 1981-1991. Obstetrics and Gynecology 94(2):172-6.

36. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005) Clostridium sordellii Toxic Shock Syndrome After Medical Abortion with Mifepristone and Intravaginal Misoprostol United States and Canada, 2001 2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 54(29):724.

37. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2005) FDA Public Health Advisory: Sepsis and Medical Abortion. FDA Retrieved August 5, 2005.

38. Berg, Cynthia J., Jeani Chang, William M. Callaghan, and Sara J. Whitehead. (2003) Pregnancy-Related Mortality in the United States, 1991 1997. Obstetrics and Gynecology 101(2):289-296.

39. McGregor JA, Soper DE, Lovell G, Todd JK. (1989) Maternal deaths associated with Clostridium sordellii infection. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 161(4):987-95.

40. Creinin, Mitchel D, Eliane Shore, Shyamala Balasubramanian and Bryna Harwood. (2005) The true cost differential between mifepristone and misoprostol and misoprostol-alone regimens for medical abortion.
Contraception 71:26-30.

41. World Health Organization. WHO Mortality Database.

42. Creinin MD, Aubeny E. (1999) Medical Abortion in early pregnancy. In: A Clinician?s Guide to Medical and Surgical Abortion, Paul M, Lichtenberg ES, Borgatta L, Grimes DA and Stubblefield PG, eds. Churchill Livingstone: New York.

43. World Health Organization. (2005) The World Health Report 2005 Make
Every Mother and Child Count. The World Health Organization: Geneva.

44. Daulaire, Nils, Pat Leidl, Laurel Mackin, Colleen Murphy, and Laura Stark. (2002) Promises to Keep: The Toll of Unintended Pregnancies on Women?s Lives in the Developing World. Global Health Council: Washington, D.C. IPAS

45. Rozenberg P, Chevret S, Camus E, Tayrac R, Garbin O, Poncheville L, Coiffic J, Lucot JP, Le Gouell F, Tardif D, Allouche C, Fernandez H, and GROG. (2003) Medical treatment of ectopic pregnancies: a randomized clinical trial comparing methotrexate-mifepristone and methotreate-placebo. Human Reproduction 18(9):1802-08.

46. Gray, Richard. Doctors let 50 women abort babies at home. Scotland on Sunday. July 3, 2005:10

47. Gideon Koren, Lavinia Schuler. Taking drugs during pregnancy. How safe is unsafe?
Canadian Family Physician. Vol 47: Mai 2001

48. G Blanch, Squenbyh, ES Ballantyne, CM Gosden, JP Neilson, K Holland, Embryonic abnormalities at medical termination of pregnancy with Mifepristone and Misoprostol during first trimester. British Medical Journal Vol. 316, pp 1712-1713, 6 June 1998

49. A Pastuszak, L Schuler ea, Use of Misoprostol during pregnancy and Mobius syndrome in infants. The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 338, number 26 pp 1881-1885, June 25, 1998

50. L Schuler, A Pastuszak, M Teresa ea. Pregnancy Outcome after exposure to misoprostol in Brazil, a prospective controlled study. Reproductive Toxicology, Vol 13, No 2, pp 147-151, 1999

51. T da Silva Dal Pizzol, V Tierling, ea. Reproductive results associated with Misoprostol and other substances utilized for interruption of pregnancy. Eur.J Clin. Pharmacol (2005) 61: 71-72.

52. David S. Newberger, M.D. Down syndrome: Prenatal risk assessment and diagnosis. American Family Physician, Vol. 62/No. 4 (August 15, 2000)

53. Essential medicines, WHO Model list (revised March 2005), page 20. WHO

54. Hamoda, Ashok, Flett and Templeton. A randomized trial of mifepriston in combination with misoprostol administered sublingually or vaginally for medical abortion at 13-20 weeks of gestation.
Human Reproduction. Advance Access, May 5, 2005, pp 1-7.

55. Hedley, Ellertson, Trussell ed, Accounting for time: Insights from a life-table analysis of the efficacy of medical abortion. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gyneacology (2004) 191, pp 1928-33

56. Timothy Craig, Cathy Mende. Common allergic and allergic-like reactions to medications. Postgraduate Medicine, vol105/ no 3/ March 1999

57. Prof P Potter, Allergy society of South Africa Retrieved August 12, 2005

58. G William Palmer, Stephen Dreskin, Anaphylaxis. E-Medicine, October 2004. pp 3. Retrieved August 12, 2005

59. Hamoda, Ashok, Flett, Templeton, A randomized controlled trial of Mifepristone in combination with misoprostol administered sublingually or vaginally for medical abortion up to 13 weeks of gestation. BJOG 2005 Aug; 112(8): 1102-8

60. CBC trust

61. Middleton T, Schaff EA, Fielding SL, Scahill M, Shannon C, Westheimer E, Wilkinson T, Winikoff B. Randomized trial of mifepristone and buccal or vaginal misoprostol for abortion through 56 days of LMP. Contraception 2005; 72:328-332.

62. Hannafin B, Lovecchio F, Do Rh-negative women with first trimester spontaneous abortions need Rh immune globulin? Am J Emerg Med. 2006 Jul;24(4):487-9.

63. "Frequently asked clinical questions about medical abortion", WHO

64. How much supervision is necessary for women taking mifepristone and misoprostol for early medical abortion? Caitlin Shannon1 & Beverly Winikoff, Women's Health, March 2008, Vol. 4, No. 2, Pages 107-111

65. Early abortion pill information

66. Repeat Abortion in the United States Jones RK, Singh S, Finer LB, Frohwirth LF, Occasional Report No. 29, November 2006, p.13

67. Winer N, Resche-Rigon M, Morin C, Ville Y, Rozenberg P., Is induced abortion with misoprostol a risk factor for late abortion or preterm delivery in subsequent pregnancies?, Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009 May 6.

68. Pauleta JR, Clode N, Graça LM, Expectant management of incomplete abortion in the first trimester, Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2009 Mar 28.

69. Rachael L. McEwing, Nigel G. Anderson, Jeremy B. A. Meates, Richard B. Allen, Greg T. M. Phillipson, and J. Elisabeth Wells. Sonographic Appearances of the Endometrium After Termination of Pregnancy in Asymptomatic Versus Symptomatic Women JUM May 2009 28:579-586

70. Gynuity (2009) Providing medical abortion in low-resource settings: An Introductory Guidebook, Second Edition

71. Bar-Hava I, Aschkenazi S, Orvieto R, et al. Spectrum of normal intrauterine cavity sonographic findings after first trimester abortion. J Ultrasound Med 2001; 20:1277– 1281.

72. Sawyer E, Ofuasia E, Ofili-Yebovi D, Helmy S, Gonzalez J, Jurkovic D. The value of measuring endometrial thickness and volume on transvaginal ultrasound scan for the diagnosis of incomplete miscarriage. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2007; 29:205–209

73. Akin A., Blum J., Özalp S., Onderoglu L., Kirca U., Bilgili N, et al. (2004); Results and lessons learned from a small medical abortion clinical study in Turkey; Contraception; 70; 401 – 406

74. Bracken H. (2010); Home administration of misoprostol for early medical abortion in India; International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics; 108; 228 – 232

75. Chuni N., Chandrashekhar TS. (2009); Early pregnancy termination with a simplified mifepristone: Medical abortion outpatient regimen; Kathmandu University Medical Journal; 7 (3) Issue 27; 209 – 212

76. Creinin M.D., Pymar H.C., Schwartz J.L. (2001); Mifepristone 100 mg in abortion regimens; Elsevier Science – Obstetrics & Gynecology; 98 (3); 434 – 439

77. Creinin M.D., Schreiber C.A., Bednarek P., Lintu H., Wagner M.S., Meyn L.A. (2007); Mifepristone and Misoprostol Administered Simultaneously Versus 24 Hours Apart for Abortion: A Randomized Controlled Trial; Obstetrics & Gynecology; 109 (4); 885–94

78. Fjerstad M., Sivin I., Lichtenberg E.S., Trussell J., Cleland K., Cullins V. (2009); Effectiveness of medical abortion with mifepristone and buccal misoprostol through 59 gestational days; Contraception; 80; 282 – 286

79. Guest J., Chien P., Thomson M., Kosseim M. (2007); Randomised controlled trial comparing the efficacy of same-day administration of mifepristone and misoprostol for termination of pregnancy with the standard 36 to 48 hour protocol; BJOG; 114; 207 – 215

80. Heikinheimo O., Gissler M., Suhonen S. (2008); Age, parity, history of abortion and contraceptive choices affect the risk of repeat abortion; Contraception; 78; 149 – 154

81. Henderson J.T., Hwang A.C., Harper C.C., Stewart F.H. (2005); Safety of mifepristone abortions in clinical use; Contraception; 72; 175 – 178

82. von Hertzen H., Piaggio G., Wojdyla D., Marions L., My Huong N.T., Tang O.S. et al. (2009); Two mifepristone doses and two intervals of misoprostol administration for termination of early pregnancy: a randomised factorial controlled equivalence trial; The World Health Organization Journal compilation: RCOG 2009 BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

83. Kopp Kallner H., Fiala C., Stephansson O., Gemzell-Danielsson K. (2010); Home self-administration of vaginal misoprostol for medical abortion at 50-63 days compared with gestation of below 50 days; Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology; 1 – 5

84. Knudsen U.B. (2001); First trimester abortion with mifepristone and vaginal Misoprostol; Contraception; 63; 247 – 250

85. Li Y.T., Hou G.Q., Chen T.H., Chu Y.C., Lin T.C., Kuan L.C., et al. (2008); High-Dose Misoprostol as An Alternative Therapy After Failed Medical Abortion; Taiwan Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology; 47 (4); 408 – 411

86. Lin M., Li Y.T., Chen F.M, Wu S.H., Tsai C.W., Chen T.A., et al. (2006); Use of Mifepristone and Sublingual Misoprostol for Early Medical Abortion; Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology; 45 (4); 321 – 324

87. Livshits A., Machtinger R., David L.B., Spira M., Moshe-Zahav A., Seidman D.S.; Ibuprofen and paracetamol for pain relief during medical abortion: a double-blind randomized controlled study; Fertility and Sterility; 91 (5); 1877 – 1880

88. Manaktala U., Singla R., Rathore A.M., Garg S. (2007); Low Dose Mifepristone And Vaginal Misoprostol: A Safe Option For Termination Of Pregnancy Up To 63 Days; The Internet Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics; 8 (1)

89. Middleton T., Schaff E., , Fielding S.L., Scahill M., Shannon C., Westheimer E., et al. (2005); Randomized trial of mifepristone and buccal or vaginal misoprostol for abortion through 56 days of last menstrual period; Contraception; 72; 328– 332

90. Nobili M.P., Piergrossi S., Brusati V., Moja E.A. (2007); The effect of patient-centered contraceptive counseling in women who undergo a voluntary termination of pregnancy; Patient Education and Counseling; 65; 361–368

91. Perriera L.K., Reeves M.F., Chena B.A., Hohmanna H.L., Hayesa J., Creinin M.D. (2010); Feasibility of telephone follow-up after medical abortion; Contraception; 81; 143–149

92. Raghavan S., Comendant R., Digol I., Ungureanu S., Friptu V, Bracken H., et al. (2009); Two-pill regimens of misoprostol after mifepristone medical abortion through 63 days' gestational age: a randomized controlled trial of sublingual and oral Misoprostol; Contraception; 79; 84 – 90

93. Raghavan S., Comendant R., Digol I., Ungureanu S., Dondiuc I., Turcanu S., et al. (2010); Comparison of 400 mcg buccal and 400 mcg sublingual misoprostol after mifepristone medical abortion through 63 days' LMP: a randomized controlled trial; Contraception; unknown

94. Reeves M.F., Kudva A., Creinin M.D. (2008); Medical abortion outcomes after a second dose of misoprostol for persistent gestational sac; Contraception; 79; 332 – 335

95. Schaff E.A., Fielding S.L., Westhoff C. (2002); Randomized trial of oral versus vaginal Misoprostol 2 days after mifepristone 200 mg for abortion up to 63 days of pregnancy; Contraception; 66; 247 – 250

96. Schaff E.A., Fielding S.L., Westhoff C., Ellertson C, Eisinger S.H., Stadalius L.S., et al. (2000); Vaginal misoprostol administered 1, 2, or 3 days after mifepristone for early medical abortion; Journal of the American Medical Association; 284; 1948 – 53

97. Shan Tang O., Chan C.C.W., Ng E.H.Y., Lee S.W.H., Chung Ho P. (2003); A prospective, randomized, placebo‐controlled trial on the use of mifepristone with sublingual or vaginal misoprostol for medical abortions of less than 9 weeks gestation; Human Reproduction; 18 (11); 2315 – 2318

98. Shannon C., Wiebe E., Jacot F., Guilbert E., Dunn S., Sheldon W.R., et al. (2006); Regimens of misoprostol with mifepristone for early medical abortion: a randomised trial; BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology; 133; 621 – 628

99. Shannon C.S., Winikoff B., Hausknecht R., Schaff E., Blumenthal P.D., Oyer D., et. al. (2005); Multicenter Trial of a Simplified Mifepristone Medical Abortion Regimen; Obstetrics & Gynecology; 105 (2); 345 – 351

100. Shuchita M., Shveta K., Batya E., Suresh U. (2008); Simplifying medical abortion: Home administration of Misoprostol; Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India; 58 (5); 410 – 416

101. Winikoff B., Dzuba I.G., Creinin M.D., Crowden W.A., Goldberg A.B., Gonzales J., et al. (2008); Two Distinct Oral Routes of Misoprostol in Mifepristone Medical Abortion: A Randomized Controlled Trial; Obstetrics & Gynecology; 112 (6); 1303 – 1310

102. Wedisinghe, L., Elsandabesee, D. (2010) Flexible mifepristone and misoprostol administration interval for first-trimester medical termination, Contraception, Volume 81, Issue 4, April, Pages 269-274

103. Fiala C, Gemzel-Danielsson K (2006) Review of medical abortion using mifepristone in combination with a prostaglandin analogue. Contraception. 2006 Jul;74(1): 66-86

104. Gemzell-Danielsson K, Lalitkumar S. (2008) Second trimester medical abortion with mifepristone-misoprostol and misoprostol alone: a review of methods and management. Reprod Health Matters May;16(31 Suppl): 162-72

105. Ho PC, Blumenthal PD, Gemzell-Danielsson K, Gómez Ponce de León R, Mittal S, Tang OS. (2007) Misoprostol for the termination of pregnancy with a live fetus at 13 to 26 weeks. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2007 Dec;99 Suppl 2: S178-81

Further Readings:

Psychological studies:

Adler NE, David HP, Major BN, Roth SH, Russo NF, Wyatt GE. (1992) Psychological factors in abortion: a review.
American Psychology 47:1194-204.

Dagg PKB. (1991) The psychological sequelae of therapeutic abortion: denied and completed. American Journal of Psychiatry 148:578-85.

Stotland NL. (1997) Psychosocial aspects of induced abortion. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 40:673-86.

Stotland NL. (2002) Psychiatric issues related to infertility, reproductive technologies, and abortion. Primary Care 29:13-26.

AMRC — Academy of Medical Royal Colleges (2011) Induced Abortion and Mental Health: A Systematic Review of the Mental Health Outcomes of Induced Abortion, Including their Prevalence and Associated Factors. London: Academy of Medical Royal Colleges

Charles, Vignetta E., et al. (2008). Abortion and Long-Term Mental Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Contraception, 78, 436–50

Timing of Misoprostol administration:

Schaff EA, Fielding SL, Westhoff C, et al. Vaginal misoprostol administered 1, 2, or 3 days after mifepristone for early medical abortion. Journal of the American Medical Association 2000;284:1948-53.

Use of mifepristone and misoprostol in nonpregnant women:

New England Journal of Medicine 1992; 327:1041-4.

Webb A, Russell J, Elstein M. Comparison of Yuzpe regimen, danazol, and mifepristone (RU 486) in oral postcoital contraception. British Medical Journal 1992; 305:927-31.