References

 

References

  • https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/induced-abortion-worldwide
  • https://www.reproductiverights.org/press-room/new-report-global-trend-of-expanding-legal-abortion-services-continues
  • https://www.statista.com/statistics/831331/south-korea-abortion-rate/
  • Special tabulations of updated data from Sedgh G et al., Abortion incidence between 1990 and 2014: global, regional, and sub regional levels and trends, Lancet, 2016, 388(10041):258–267.
  • Ganatra B et al., Global, regional, and sub regional classification of abortions by safety, 2010–14: estimates from a Bayesian hierarchical model, Lancet, 2017, 390(10110):2372–2381
  • Bearak J et al., Global, regional, and subregional trends in unintended pregnancy and its outcomes from 1990 to 2014: estimates from a Bayesian hierarchical model, Lancet Global Health, 2018, 6(4):e380–e389.
  • The World Health Organization’s definition of health is: “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. (http://apps.who.int/gb/bd/PDF/bd47/EN/constitution-en.pdf?ua=1)
  • Access to essential medicines as part of the right to the highest attainable standard of health ("the right to health") is well-founded in numerous international human rights treaties, such as: the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Article 25.1 in 1948; the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; Article 5 (e) (iv) in 1965; the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Article 12.1 in 1966; the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women; Articles 11 (1) (f), 12 and 14 (2) (b) in 1979; the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child; Article 24; the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families; Articles 28, 43 (e) and 45 (c) in 1990, and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Article 25 in 2006.
  • In October 2011, Anand Grover, the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Health, submitted a report to the UN General Assembly which stated, “Criminal laws penalising and restricting induced abortion are the paradigmatic examples of impermissible barriers to the realisation of women's right to health and must be eliminated. These laws infringe women's dignity and autonomy by severely restricting decision-making by women in respect of their sexual and reproductive health”(https://www.un.org/press/en/2011/gashc4018.doc.htm)
  • General comment No. 22 (2016) on the right to sexual and reproductive health (article 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights) states that, “Essential medicines should also be available, including a wide range of contraceptive methods, such as condoms and emergency contraception, medicines for abortion and for post-abortion care, and medicines, including generic medicines, for the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections and HIV.” (http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=17168&LangID=E#sthash.MfGe1y5D.XSS87v3P.dpuf)
  • In 2013 the Committee on the Rights of the Child General comment No. 15 ( 2013) on the right of the  child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health (art. 24) stated: The Committee recommends that States ensure access to safe abortion and post-abortion care services, irrespective of whether abortion itself is legal
  • (http://www.refworld.org/docid/51ef9e134.html)
  • On 6 December 2016, the Committee on the Rights of the Child General comment No. 20 (2016) on the implementation of the rights of the child during adolescence stated:“The Committee urges States to decriminalize abortion to ensure that girls have access to safe abortion and postabortion services, review legislation with a view to guaranteeing the best interests of pregnant adolescents and ensure that their views are always heard and respected in abortion related decisions.”
  • http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CRC/C/GC/20&Lang=en
  • On April 4 April 2016 the Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health” stated:” In connection to sexual and reproductive health rights, the Special Rapporteur recommends that Governments: (b) Decriminalize abortion and guarantee all adolescents access to confidential, adolescent-responsive and non-discriminatory sexual and reproductive health information, services and goods, including on family planning, counselling, pre- conception care, maternal care, sexually transmitted infections, diagnosis and treatment, as well as modern forms of contraception, including emergency contraception, and safe abortion and post-abortion services; (https://www.right-docs.org/doc/a-hrc-32-32)
  • ]http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/essentialmedicines/en/
  • WHO, Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems, 2 ND 
  • Ed., 2012. Available in: 
  • http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/70914/1/9789241548434_eng.pdf.Last access on 9/14/2017.
  • ]https://www.nap.edu/read/24950/chapter/4#69, Page 69
  • https://www.nap.edu/read/24950/chapter/1.
  • Self reported outcomes and adverse events after medical abortionthrough online telemedicine: population based study in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland., Aiken ARA, Digol I, Trussell J, GompertsR., BMJ. 2017 May 16;357:j2011. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j2011.
  • Regional differences in surgical intervention following medical termination of pregnancy provided by telemedicine., GompertsR, Petow SA, Jelinska K, Steen L, Gemzell-Danielsson K, Kleiverda G, Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012 Feb;91(2):226-31. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0412.2011.01285.x. Epub 2011 Oct 17.
  • Experiences and characteristics of women seeking and completing at-home medical termination of pregnancy through online telemedicine in Ireland and Northern Ireland: a population-based analysis, Aiken A, GompertsR, Trussell J.BJOG. 2017 Jul;124(8):1208-1215. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.14401. Epub 2016 Oct 17.
  • Using telemedicine for termination of pregnancy with mifepristone and misoprostol in settings where there is no access to safe services, GompertsRJ, Jelinska K, Davies S, Gemzell-Danielsson K, Kleiverda G., BJOG. 2008 Aug;115(9):1171-5; discussion 1175-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2008.01787.x. Epub 2008 Jul 10.